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The wrong skincare will have consequences for your customers. It will cost them a lot of money, without providing what the skin needs. Inappropriate or incomplete products could cause their skin to develop an allergy, age prematurely, or simply be “under-fed”. As a professional, you can help your customers to see through the common illusions employed by the cosmetics industry and make the right decisions based on accurate information. We hope that the following articles will be of use to you.

 

Contact allergies caused by skincare products

The importance of skin-identical substances

Hydration of the skin with liposomes

Mineral oils

AHA fruit acids

Oxygen in cosmetics

Skin and sun

Active ingredients
E
ssential oils


C
ontact allergies caused by skincare products


Anyone who has experienced an incompatibility reaction knows how distressing it is. Allergies have increased in recent years, and the cosmetics industry is partly to blame. A
ccording to our findings, cosmetic products contain too many allergenic ingredients. Cosmeticians therefore have a particular responsibility to be well-informed and to use their expertise to critically scrutinize products to ensure that they are the safest possible products for their clients. Scrupulous professionals should know the background of allergic reactions in order to avoid them as far as possible and be able to advise their clients accordingly.

How
do allergic reactions occur? In principle, any substance that the human body regards as foreign can trigger an allergic reaction. The more foreign the substance is to the immune system, the greater the likelihood is of such a defensive reaction. Conversely, the more similar a cosmetic ingredient is to substances that are native to the body, the less likely is an allergic reaction. Epidemiological studies have clearly shown which ingredients in cosmetic products most frequently trigger allergies and which are compatible with the skin. Medical textbooks and academic articles on dermatology state that perfume and chemical preservatives are amongst the worst allergens. Unfortunately, these are also the most commonly used substances in cosmetics. Given that these substances are carried into the skin and break through the protective barrier of the stratum corneum, the exacerbated allergies caused by cosmetics are not surprising. It is important to remember that the first stage of a skin allergy (the sensitization phase) is not visible. Even when the skin seems to tolerate a product with perfume and chemical preservatives, the allergic process (sensitization) could have already begun in the immune system. It often happens that a product is tolerated by the skin for a long time and then suddenly is no longer tolerated. This phenomenon is not surprising to experts on allergies. The sensitization phase, the time it takes the body to react to an allergen with an allergic reaction, can take days, weeks, months or even years. Thus, if one regularly applies a cream containing perfumes and/or chemical preservatives, an allergy may already be developing even if the product seems to be compatible. The problem only becomes apparent when the allergic reaction finally occurs. The result is sick or prematurely old-looking skin.  

There are no preservatives that do
not carry this risk for skin health and beauty. The dermatological journal “Der Hautarzt” (The Skin Doctor) published an article in 2003 called “Kontaktsensibilisierungen auf Externa” (Contact sensitization to external agents) by Dr. S.M. Erdmann and Dr. H.F. Merk from the Aachen University Skin Clinic. Here are some important extracts from the article:

“Especially skincare products, due to their frequent use and broad distribution, are a great cause of sensitization. Perfumes and preservatives, especially in cosmetic products, are a common trigger for contact allergies world-wide” and  “It has to be put on record that to date no microbiologically satisfactory preservative has been found that is guaranteed not to trigger a sensitization process (neither for topical dermatics nor for cosmetic products).” (Topical dermatics are medicinal prescriptions for the acute treatment of the skin)

However, it is easy to protect your customers from this danger. The packaging of any skincare product lists all the ingredients (INCI system). Here are the most common preservatives found in cosmetics: methylparaben, ethylparaben, butylparaben, propylparaben, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, triclosan, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, chlorhexidin, methylisothiazolinon, dibromodicyanobutan, sorbic acid, benzoic acid, DMDM hydantoin, polyaminopropyl biguanide, phenoxyethanol, chlormethylisothiazolinon, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol (bronopol), quaternium 15, and iodpropinylbutylcarbamat.  

Sometimes marketers
try to disguise the presence of chemical preservatives by claiming that a product contains “only natural preservatives”. What they do not say is that the natural preservatives” are no different from “chemical preservatives”. Please note: natural = chemical = synthesized. There are in fact miniscule traces of the most commonly used chemical preservatives such as parabens, potassium sorbate, and sodium benzoate in nature, which is how the marketers justify calling them “natural”. However, for use in cosmetics these substances are chemically synthesized in factories on an industrial scale. In any case, when it comes to allergy hazards, it does not matter where the substance comes from. To the immune system they are foreign. Preservatives have a strong allergic potential for everyone 

To achieve the best possible compatibility and tolerance it is obvious that the most common allergens should be excluded from cosmetic products
. However, it requires particular effort in research to achieve products that smell good or neutral without perfume and that keep without preservatives. The Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare  research team has been successful in developing not only creams but also liposomes that smell very good without perfume and keep for a long time without chemical preservatives.  


T
he compatibility of a cosmetic product depends on every individual ingredient. A product can be incompatible if it contains even one single allergenic ingredient. Just as a chain is only as strong as its weakest link, a product with many good ingredients and one incompatible substance can trigger an allergy.  

Often
, advertisers claim that a product is “dermatologically tested” or “clinically tested”. But what do these tests reveal? The advertisements do not disclose the results of the tests. Perhaps the product was dermatologically tested and found to be incompatible. For example, some products are advertised as “dermatologically tested” and “hypo-allergenic” even though they contain chemical preservatives and have not been tested for allergies. In any case, a single test is not enough to determine whether or not sensitization is caused by a product and its ingredients; many repeated tests must be carried out over months and years.  

With
Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare products, which contain no perfume and no chemical preservatives, you and your customers can be assured of being safe from incompatibility reactions to the two most common sources of allergies. Even so, there is no guarantee of 100% safety: even otherwise compatible active ingredients can cause a reaction in a person with an exceptional disposition towards allergies. In such exceptional cases, a reaction may develop even from a Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare product. However, because Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare products are characterized by a very high and good compatibility, people who have difficulty finding a compatible skin cream are amongst our most loyal customers. For people who have not had such problems in the past, Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare is the best way to avoid a problem in the future.

Although the classic DR. BAUMANN products offer a nearly perfect protection, those with exceptional sensitivity can also choose from the new Dr. Baumann SkinIdent® series. All products of this series offer 100% security against allergic skin reactions.  

To explain how this is possible, we need to take an even more concentrated look at the anatomy and physiology of the skin.
 

The skin (cutis) consists of the epidermis and the dermis (corium). The skin is approximately 1
.75 m2, and is the largest “immune organ” of the body. The epidermis contains keratinocytes and immune cells called Langerhans cells. In the dermis there are lymphocytes, mast cells (mastocytes), monocytes and macrophages. The job of the immune system is to recognize and attack foreign bodies in order to protect the organism. It does this by differentiating between “self” and “other”. This differentiation allows the immune system to recognize foreign bodies (antigens) such as bacteria and viruses and employ its special
defense mechanisms to render them harmless.  

If
foreign allergens breach the skin’s natural barrier (stratum corneum), they come into contact with the immune cells of the epidermis, the Langerhans cells. These cells use their dendrite appendages to form a network in the epidermis to take up the antigens or allergens and process them. The Langerhans cells then present the processed antigens to the lymphocytes, which react by becoming active and proliferating. For this reason, the Langerhans cells are also known as “antigen-presenting cells”. The lymphocytes migrate to the area where the antigens have invaded and release inflammatory substances, causing the typical signs of inflammation in the skin (example: allergic contact dermatitis).  

An immunological tolerance towards tissues and substances which are native to the skin is vital. Otherwise the body would destroy itself, which only happens in the case of some very rare autoimmune diseases. The tolerance towards substances which are native to the skin exists from embryonic development and is accomplished through complicated interwoven, yet unknown, mechanisms.

The immunological defense against foreign intruders is essential for the body’s survival. However, hypersensitivity reactions in the form of allergies harm the organism and relevant organs considerably. “Approximately 80% of all allergies happen in the skin and surrounding mucous membranes”. “Eczema is the most common skin disease, with a 20% prevalence world-wide”. “Allergic contact eczema is the most common type of eczema” (from the textbook “Dermatology” by Dr. E.Jung).  

The frequency of allergies in industrialized countries is on the rise.
Therefore, knowledge about allergies and their prevention is of great importance, particularly to cosmeticians and skincare users.  

Other than the immune defense against pathogens, the first contact with an allergen within the framework of allergy development is clinically silent. In other words, when the skin first comes in contact with a substance, no allergy can develop in the skin. A complicated chain of metabolic processes – the so-called sensitization process - must take place in the body before an allergy can appear. The process of sensitization takes at least 5 days, and more often weeks, months, years or even decades. Given the many complex metabolic mechanisms and cells involved, it is easy to understand why it takes so long for allergies to arise. An immediate allergic reaction to a substance means that there was previous contact with the substance and the process of sensitization has already occurred. The following paragraphs describe the sequence of sensitization and the triggering of allergic reactions.  

The sensitization phase:
Haptens (foreign, low-molecular weight molecules such as preservatives, and fragrance) attach themselves to carriers in the skin such as protein molecules to become full antigens. These antigens are taken up by the Langerhans cells, processed and presented (antigen-presentation) to the T-lymphocytes (special immune cells). The Langerhans cells also release the chemical signal (cytokine) interleukin-1 which activates the proliferation of T-lymphocytes in the regional lymph nodes. These specifically sensitized lymphocytes arrive in the skin and the rest of the body, so that the progress of sensitization is engaged in the whole organism. This sensitization normally remains for life.  

The sensitization phase (according to “Dermatology” by Dr. E.
Jung) depends on the duration and intensity of the contact with the allergen, the sensitizing power of the allergen, the barrier function of the skin, and probably a genetic predisposition.

Then begins the activation phase: By this time, the body is already sensitized, but no skin allergies are in evidence. These only become noticeable when the sensitized organism comes into contact with the same antigen it was sensitized against. The concentration of allergens plays no role in this. Even the smallest quantities can trigger an allergic reaction. On renewed contact between the sensitized T-lymphocytes and the allergen (which previously initiated the sensitization) lymphokines are discharged (which are chemical messengers). These lymphokines attract so-called mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages) with the purpose of eliminating the allergen. From the various inflammatory cells a so-called mediator substance is discharged which results in the clinical inflammation.  

A
cute contact dermatitis:
All of the indications of active inflammation are visible: redness, swelling, blisters which burst and weep, dry out, form scabs and drop off as flakes. There is violent itchiness.  

C
hronic contact eczema:
Rough thickening (lichenification) of the skin, callusing (hyperkeratosis) and deep cracks in the skin characterize this condition.  

The distribution phenomenon
:
If the allergens are not removed, the inflammation can spread from the area of reaction to healthy surrounding areas and other areas which are in contact. In extreme cases the entire surface of the body can become inflamed (erythrodermy).  

Medical therapy
:
To abstain from and avoid contact with allergy-inducing substances and cortisone treatment are the choices for medical-dermatological therapy.  

Prevention – the most import challenge
:
Lately the question has been asked, whether it is sensible on medical grounds and justifiable on ethical grounds to allow an allergy to develop through the use of known allergens only to require medically treatment later. Is it not more sensible and in people’s best interest to avoid known allergy triggers in cosmetics? What are sensible strategies to prevent allergies from cosmetics? There are two possible strategies:  

Very good strategy: Limiting the number of non-skin-identical foreign substances
 

v  The products consist of as many ingredients as possible that are native or endemic to the skin.
v  All other foreign substances used as ingredients are very compatible according to dermatological classification.
v  The most common allergy triggers such as fragrance and preservatives are excluded.  

Practical realization: The classic Dr. Baumann range (with the exception of a few products which contain essential oil, necessary for some therapeutic results).
 

Best strategy: Excluding all non-skin-identical foreign substances. 
 

The products consist exclusively of ingredients and vitamins which are native or endemic to the skin, because under normal conditions the immune system does not work against the body.  

Practical realization: The Dr. Baumann SkinIdent® range.


 

The importance of skin-identical substances  

Allergies are caused by substances which are foreign to the body, but the immune system considers substances which are native or endemic to the body and the skin to be appropriate and therefore does not attack them. Only in the case of specific autoimmune diseases does the immune system attack substances and tissues normally present in the body, which often results in life-threatening disease patterns. Substances which are native or endemic to the body are not attacked by the immune system, so the goal of Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare research from the beginning has been to develop products with as many endemic ingredients as possible. The highest goal of Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare research however has been to use only ingredients which are native or endemic to the body. This has led to the development of the Dr. Baumann SkinIdent® line, the first of its kind in the world.

At the time of publication of this information, Dr. Baumann SkinIdent® is the only skincare line in the world to consist exclusively of ingredients and vitamins that are endemic and/or native to the skin and body. This new concept has direct visible and tangible benefits for the skin.  

Dermatological facts which directed the development of Dr. Baumann SkinIdent®:
 

v
  Only substances foreign to the body trigger allergies in the skin.
v  Substances native to the body do not cause allergies (with the exception of certain autoimmune diseases).
v  Allergies are constantly increasing and are causing a problem.
v  A skincare product can only be optimally effective if it is optimally compatible.  

I
t is possible to prevent dermatological problems such as those caused by allergenic ingredients by following a daily skincare routine which ensures optimal effectiveness through the best possible compatibility. As the development of allergic reactions and related skin diseases is unpredictable, the first logical step is to avoid the worst allergy triggers (according to dermatology) of fragrance, preservatives and other allergenic foreign substances.   

The
Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare research team has achieved success with something previously not considered possible in its new Dr. Baumann SkinIdent® skincare line:
 

v
  All the products in this line consist exclusively of skin-endemic active substances and vitamins.
v  All products last for at least 30 months without preservatives.
v  All products have a pleasant scent without the addition of perfume.   

The right concentration
s of the all-important active ingredients guarantee optimal effectiveness. At the same time, the use of ingredients and vitamins native to the skin ensures the best possible compatibility. From a dermatological point of view, compatibility and effectiveness are the most important characteristics of a skincare product: this is the basis of Dr. Baumann SkinIdent®.  

Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare
also places a special significance on ethical aspects such as the protection of animals and the environment.  

v
  Animal-friendly: No animal ingredients.
v  Environmentally-friendly: No wasteful wrapping and outer packaging.  



H
ydration of the skin with liposomes

 

Multilamellar liposomes
(Image under an electron microscope)


Liposomes are minute vesicles with membranes comprised of a double layer of molecules called phospholipids. These phospholipids possess a spherical hydrophilic (water soluble) component and a tail-shaped lipophilic (fat soluble) component. At
Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare these natural phospholipids are extracted from soy. Under certain conditions they group themselves together in a watery medium into spherical structures, the liposomes. This is achieved as the lipophilic ends of the phospholipids fit together to form a double membrane, the outer layer of which is hydrophilic and the inner layer lipophilic. Therefore, the inside and the outside of a liposome are hydrophilic and the inside of the liposome membrane is lipophilic. Consequently, liposomes can absorb both water-soluble active ingredients (such as water-soluble vitamins and chemical preservatives) within the liposome, and fat-soluble substances (such as fat-soluble vitamins and perfume) in the liposome membrane, and transport these into the skin. For substances which have a positive effect on the skin, this transport function is desired and welcomed. However, for foreign substances that commonly trigger allergies (perfume and chemical preservatives) and cause a defensive reaction in the immune system, this is considered extremely risky. Therefore, the use of liposomes demands from the manufacturer as well as cosmeticians a particular sense of responsibility and knowledge of the physiological factors involved, otherwise damage could be inflicted on the user. For this reason, Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare produces only liposome products without perfume and without chemical preservatives.

Exactly the same phospholipids
that comprise the liposome membrane form the walls of skin cells. Similarly, the intercellular substance which is found between the skin cells is composed of phospholipids, ceramids, triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol and water. If skin cells are slightly damaged or if the intercellular substance is lost through aggressive cleansing methods, liposomes are able to perfectly replenish the missing lipids. Therefore, the combination of phospholipids, ceramids and other skin-endemic lipids which can be found in many DR. BAUMANN and SkinIdent® products is ideal. Liposomes represent ideal skincare. Because their composition of phospholipids is identical to that of the cell walls, exceptional compatibility is guaranteed. When one puts onto and into the skin the same substances that comprise the skin itself, under normal circumstances no allergic reaction will occur. Cases of allergies related to liposome products are not attributable to the exceptionally compatible liposomes themselves, but to the transference by liposomes of allergenic substances, which should not be in the skin, such as perfumes and chemical preservatives.

Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare uses multilamellar liposomes, which according to our research are more effective than ordinary liposomes. Multilamellar liposomes have several different-sized liposomes interlaced with one another. Next to a small liposome lies a larger one, and next to these an even larger one, so that between 5 and 12 liposomes of various sizes are interlinked with one another. The size of the various liposomes is between 20 and 300 nm. Since the depth of penetration is directly related to their size – the smaller the liposome, the deeper they are able to penetrate – multilamellar liposomes have been found to be particularly good at penetrating the various skin layers. However, the depth of penetration of a liposome also depends on whether the liposome’s phospholipids are built of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids. Many scientific studies have shown that liposomes consisting of unsaturated fatty acids / phospholipids can penetrate well into the skin and transport active substances. Liposomes with saturated (hydrogenated) fatty acids cannot do this. Multilamellar liposomes with unsaturated phospholipids have the ability to actively supply the skin with more moisture than any other active ingredient used in cosmetics. Studies show that multilamellar liposomes comprised of unsaturated fatty acids can boost the skin’s moisture content by almost 100% within only 7 days, whereas liposomes with saturated hydrophilic phospholipids do not cause an increase in moisture and, according to one study, can even cause dryness in the skin.

Conclusion: Not all liposomes are equal. There are many different liposomes with various characteristics and qualities. The effectiveness of a liposome therefore depends on the quality of the phospholipids and the concentration of the liposomes in a product.

According to our scientific findings, the multilamellar liposomes with unsaturated phospholipids used by
Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare present the ideal in skincare, together with other skin-endemic lipids and vitamins.

 


 

Mineral oils

The selection of the correct oils is also of huge importance in creating a successful skincare product. Most skincare products use very cheap mineral oils because the low prices allow for large profit margins. For the consumer, however, these oils are a bad investment. Products based on mineral oils do not feel as pleasant on the skin as plant-based natural oils do, and more importantly, they do not contain the valuable active ingredients (such as vitamins) that plant oils do. In contrast to valuable plant oils, mineral oils are a relatively cheap resource. The greatest problem with mineral oils is that that in high concentrations they form an impenetrable film (occlusive effect) on the skin. Research by the Dermatological University of Copenhagen and others has shown that high concentrations of mineral oils can repress the skin’s lipid barrier, leading to moisture loss in the skin and dry, cracked, and flaky skin in the long turn. This damaging effect often becomes clear to the consumers when they stop using a product containing  inexpensive mineral oils. That is when the skin's underlying dryness appears. In some cases the skin can feel very unpleasant due to not receiving what it needed for a long time.

Treatment with high-quality products containing valuable plant oils or skin-identical oils will slowly build up the skin again and restore the natural lipid balance. Skin-endemic lipids, such as phospholipids and ceramids, ensure that the skin’s lipid barrier is rebuilt and regenerated. However, this takes a fairly long time (2-6 weeks), during which the skin could still be dry and rough or have visible skin problems. When one changes from a product containing mineral oils to a product with plant-based natural oils and skin-endemic lipids, it is not the valuable plant oils and lipids that are responsible for the acute coarseness and dryness of the skin which follows, but the cheap mineral oils that were previously applied.

Our recommendation: If this effect of the use of mineral oils in the past occurs, it is important to continue treatment and home skincare with Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare,  so that a fully-functioning skin barrier of natural lipids and fatty acids can be formed. The incompatibility reaction can be alleviated by temporarily using lower concentrations of liposomes or a product without liposomes until the skin barrier is restored and the skin is balanced again. Thereafter, the normal dose of liposomes is recommended.

Mineral oils in dermatology: The occlusive effect of high doses of mineral oils is indeed undesirable when it comes to cosmetic care of healthy skin. However it can be beneficial in the dermatological treatment of skin diseases where the occlusive effect is temporarily needed, for example when severely burned skin needs to be protected from bacteria in the hospital. For this reason, mineral oils in medical creams must be assessed differently to those in cosmetic products.

Recognizing mineral oils: Mineral oils are identified in the INCI declaration on the packaging as: mineral oil, petrolatum (Vaseline), paraffinum-liquidum, cera microcrystalline, microcrystalline wax, ozocerite, ceresin, and eucerin, a mixture of lanolin alcohol and Vaseline (mineral oil).

Instead of mineral oils, Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare uses high grade natural oils: evening primrose oil, jojoba oil, shea butter, macadamia oil and sesame oil. They all contain the necessary components that your skin needs.


 

AHA fruit acids

As soon as there is a new trend, many cosmeticians, cosmetics institutes, and consumers influenced by advertising jump onboard, with no regard for the possible health consequences. The media, who often have no technical knowledge, and advertisements by marketing experts have highly recommended AHA fruit acids and other peels as a great discovery. The possible long-term dermatological consequences, particularly with the incorrect application, do not appear to interest everyone. Particularly for normal, healthy skin with a normal, distinctive stratum corneum, the use of peels and the thinning of the stratum corneum is completely absurd, and even damaging. The stratum corneum forms an important protective barrier for our body, which on no account should be damaged. Thinning the stratum corneum weakens its protective function. It leads to increased sensitivity to UV rays, which can infiltrate the skin much more easily. The possible cell damage can lead to an increased likelihood of malignant skin tumors. Intensive exposure to UV always causes premature ageing of the skin and the development of wrinkles. If one undergoes a peel in winter when there is less exposure to the sun, cold weather can cause cold damage to the skin. What is particularly alarming is that daily application can interfere with the physiological skin flora, allowing pathogenic germs to spread. Even the immune defenses against bacteria, viruses and fungi can be weakened. The impairment of the skin’s barrier function can increase the skin’s susceptibility to problems such as eczema and contact allergies.

Peels should only be applied in cases where a thickened stratum corneum is the basis for skin problems.
When the skin is extremely thickened and impure, this peeling of the stratum corneum is sensible, to eliminate the thickening from the sebaceous glands and thereby get rid of the basis for acne. In cases such as this, fruit acids in particular provide a valuable and problem-free method of treatment. When used as a treatment it is sensible to allow the skin time (1 or 2 weeks) to regenerate  between applications. Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare offers the fruit acid glycolic acid in the form of a peel. Although these products are not sold directly to consumers, a trained cosmetician can use Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare to make an exact match between the skin type and the proposed peel. We offer graduated concentrations of 10%, 20% and 30%, but only for salon use. 

Note: Fruit acids in the form of a peel are superbly suited to thinning a thickened stratum corneum as a normal measure when problem such as pimples or acne are the result of skin thickening.
However, our findings have shown that applying a daily peel adversely affects skin that has a normal stratum corneum.


Oxygen in cosmetics

Oxygen creams and the inhalation of oxygen in cosmetics are still being widely promoted. Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare does not use oxygen, for the reasons outlined below.

The use of oxygen in cosmetic products is based on the recognition that consumers tend to assume that a high concentration of oxygen must be a good thing. In fact, the skin and the organism are best supplied with the oxygen needed for the cells via the lungs and circulatory system, without an additional supply from oxygen creams or oxygen inhalation being necessary. Oxygen inhalation belongs in the field of emergency medicine, when a sufficiently high concentration of oxygen in the bloodstream is warranted to supply the somatic cells.

Leaving aside the veracity of claims that oxygen creams can deliver significant amounts of O2 to the skin, a 100% increase in oxygen concentration is not desirable for normal, healthy skin and may even cause damage. Healthy skin does not depend on having the largest possible amount of oxygen for the organism and the skin but on the right concentration, which is already guaranteed by the blood supply to the skin. In fact, an excess of oxygen is toxic (poisonous) to the cell enzymes and damages the cells and their cell functions. This is not the job of a cosmetic cream. As no damage has occurred through the use of oxygen creams up till now, we conclude that the concentration of oxygen supplied by these creams is not even worth mentioning. For oxygen to be absorbed by the skin, fluorinated hydrocarbon is necessary as a solvent, and its metabolism has not been clarified to date. On these grounds fluorinated hydrocarbon is banned from use in medicines.

An important contribution for professionals wanting further information is the article by Dr. Rolf Zander from the Institute for Physiology and Pathophysiology of the University of Mainz, which appears in KI-Magazin 7/98, Page 94-97
under the title “There is no oxygen deficiency in the skin”. Dr. Zander is a renowned expert in the field of oxygen physiology and writes in this article (citations):

“If the cosmetics industry are now recommending oxygen cosmetics under reference to Manfred von Ardenne’s oxygen therapy or the oxygen inhalation centers, which are enjoying great popularity, one can only quote the review formerly published in a German medical journal, namely “nonsense”.”

“In the last few decades hundreds of publications have dealt with the poisonous side-effects of O2. Used as a denominator, 100% O2 is a powerful oxidation agent which after only 24 hours of administration can seriously damage the lipids of the lungs and brain. Furthermore, it can be proven for every organ that directly after 100% O2 is supplied to the lungs, the blood circulation to the organs decreases by 10 to 15% (so as to protect the organs from the oxidation agent O2). This also applies to the skin.”

“Only after years of treating premature babies with 100% O2 did medical science identify the phenomenon of retrolental fibroplasia, a disease of the eye causing growth of retinal blood vessels resulting in blindness. One can only hope that this experience will not be lost on the cosmetics industry.”

Conclusion: The use of oxygen in cosmetics is questionable, as it poses considerable health risks. Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare prohibits the use of oxygen and does not use it in any product.


Skin and sun

Solar radiation is of vital importance for humans. It is through UV rays that vitamin D is synthesized in the skin. Vitamin D is important for the absorption of calcium in the intestines, which is necessary for normal bone growth. Sunlight also seems to have a positive influence on our mood and hormonal balance. However, we should not allow the positive effects of sunlight to mislead us into over-exposing ourselves to UV rays. As Paracelus discovered, the dosage makes the poison! In too high a dose sunlight and sun beds have a negative effect on our skin. This applies to UV-C rays (250-280 nm), UV-B rays (280-315 nm) as well as UV-A rays (315-400 nm). It we do not overdo our exposure to radiation, under normal circumstances our skin is able to prevent or repair damage through its own protective and reparative systems. Also important in this context is an intact immune system, which has an enduring influence on our nourishment and way of life. When the repair mechanisms are overburdened by strong UV radiation, it has serious and far-reaching consequences for the skin. Premature ageing and the formation of wrinkles are the most harmless of these consequences. Much worse is the damage to the DNA of the cell nuclei, which alters genetic information and causes cells to proliferate uncontrollably and to form tumors. Particularly serious is the so-called “black cancer” or melanoma, which develops from a proliferation in malignant mutated melanocytes and which quickly forms secondary tumors in the rest of the body. It is important to avoid risks such as excessive UV radiation and to ensure early detection of developing melanomas.

Cosmeticians have a responsibility to send their clients to a dermatologist at the slightest indication of a malignant skin mutation. What should raise suspicions of a melanoma are all pigmented skin anomalies which rapidly increase in size, have an irregular edges, become inflamed, bleed easily, have an uneven surface or are darkly or irregularly pigmented. Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare runs dermatological seminars for its cosmeticians, which deal not only with early recognition of skin cancer but also other relevant dermatological illnesses which are relevant to cosmetic practice, and the correct treatment of specific skin problems. Excessive exposure to UV radiation and sunburn should be avoided at all costs, as this damage is irreversible and cannot be undone. Serious sunburn during childhood is now known to be responsible for melanomas in later life. An important means of protection is skin-protective vitamin E, as vitamin E has the capability to clearly reduce the sun burnt cells. This skin-protective vitamin should be taken internally (dietary supplements) as well as externally by applying good skincare and sun protection products.

Inorganic pigments such as the natural minerals zinc oxide and titanium oxide offer effective UV protection and an exceptional compatibility with the skin. The Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare research team used this knowledge to develop a new and improved generation of sun protection products with improved compatibility and protection, without the use of chemical light protection filters. The improved compatibility is due to the avoidance of substances which cause a high rate of allergies, such as perfumes and chemical preservatives.

These sun protection products, based on the latest scientific knowledge, make it possible to enjoy lightly tanned skin without fear, providing we are sensible about our exposure to sunlight (and sun beds).


Active ingredients

Active ingredients can be roughly divided into natural and synthetically/chemically or biotechnologically manufactured substances. Although the natural substances are preferable, it would be a mistake to exclude entirely the latter group of active substances. There are natural substances which are extremely dangerous for people, and synthetic substances which are of great value to people and which are much purer (without environmental contaminants) than substances coming directly from nature. The Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare research team studies every substance thoroughly to find its benefits for healthy and effective skincare and chooses the active ingredients according to these criteria. Wherever possible, we prefer to use skin-related and/or skin-endemic substances which occur naturally in the skin and body and therefore under normal circumstances cannot trigger allergies.  

Among natural substances, some are derived from plants and some from animals.
According to our research, animal substances display no benefits over plant-based substances. Therefore, we are able to create products with no animal ingredients without compromising the quality of the product, particularly now that a few beneficial animal substances can be biotechnically manufactured (such as hyaluronic acid) or extracted from plant resources (such as cetyl palmitate instead of whale oil). There is a second and more important reason to exclude animal products. Meat and animal resources, except for a small percentage, are produced through mass-farming or “factory farming”, where animals are kept from birth in cramped spaces and mistreated their entire lives, culminating in the confusion of unspeakable methods of livestock transportation and slaughter. Because of this cruelty and the fact that animal produce is often treated with hormones or chemotherapy, the conclusion about these products can only be a resounding NO.

Every manufacturer of cosmetic products is obliged to follow the cosmetic regulation to declare every ingredient according to the INCI (The International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients). This makes it possible to assess the quality of skincare products on the basis of their ingredients. Everyone who is interested in health should do this for their own protection, and cosmeticians have a particular responsibility to do so to protect their clients.

 

Instead of cheap mineral oils, Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare uses high grade natural oils: evening primrose oil, jojoba oil, shea butter, macadamia oil and sesame oil. All of these contain the components that skin requires. In the Dr. Baumann SkinIdent range, pure skin-identical lipids are used directly.

 

Evening primrose oil contains high concentrations of gammo-linoleic acid as essential fatty acid (vitamin F). In many people the metabolic process of building gamma-linoleic acid from linoleic acid is disrupted. This is often the case with eczema or dermatitis. For this condition and for very dry skin evening primrose oil with gamma-linoleic acid is very effective. Even for children with eczema or dermatitis, skincare with gamma-linoleic acid has turned out to be very beneficial. Unfortunately, not all cosmetic products contain this valuable evening primrose oil, as it is expensive and difficult to work with due to its sensitivity to oxidation. Also, due to its unsaturated fatty acids, it has the tendency to become slightly rancid. Not every cosmetics manufacturer has the technological know-how to develop an effective antioxidant safeguard against the oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acids.

 


 

Essential oils

 

Essential oils enjoy great popularity in ordinary cosmetics as well as in so-called natural cosmetics. They really do have a pleasant effect on the body, mind and spirit, and some essential oils also have a positive effect on certain skin problems. Because they are frequently used as pure fragrance to improve the scent of normal skincare products, it is no wonder that essential oils are increasingly triggering fragrance allergies. Scientific studies consistently find that perfume and fragrance are the most common allergy triggers. Legislation in the EU and on a national level has allowed for fragrances in essential oils to be classified as allergens. This strongly undermines the unfounded assertion that natural is always good and chemical is always bad. To completely confound the consumer, one company which works with essential oils writes: “no synthetic fragrances”, as if there were a difference in allergenic risk between natural fragrances and synthetic fragrances. Exactly the same trick is used by companies using chemical preservatives such as parabens, potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate and advertising that they use “only” natural preservatives. These natural preservatives are always chemical, synthetic preservatives. But “natural” sounds so much better, and the consumer is swayed by a questionable sense of security.

Since March 2005, cosmetics regulations stipulate that 24 allergenic fragrances which can be found in essential oils or perfumes must be declared on the packaging of skincare and cleansing products, even in concentrations of only 0.001% for “leave on” products and 0.01% for “rinse off” products. These 24 allergens in essential oils are listed by INCI as:

Alpha-isomethylionone
Anise Alcohol
Amyl Cinnamal
Amylcinnamyl Alcohol

Benzyl Alcohol
Benzyl Benzoate
Benzyl Cinnamate
Benzyl Salicylate
Butylphenyl Methylpropiona

Cinnamyl Alcohol
Citral Isoeugenol
Citronellol
Coumarin

Eugenol
Evernia Prunastri Extract
Evernia Furfuracea Extract

Farnesol

Geraniol

Hexyl Cinnamal
Hydroxycitronellal
Hydroxyisohexyl 3-Cyclohexene Carboxaldehyd

Linalool
Limonene

Methyl 2-Octynoate

Legislators have taken these measures to protect consumers from the allergy risks which lurk not only in perfumes but also in products containing natural essential oils. In straightforward skincare products Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare excludes essential oils entirely. They are only included in special products which aim to achieve a special therapeutic effect in the treatment of the skin. Then they are accurately declared in accordance with legal requirements. In these cases the concentrations are chosen so that the effective value and possible allergy risk are justified in relation to one another.

The second danger which can come from essential oils is skin irritation which is also a toxic reaction. This can only be expected from high concentrations. This applies to all essential oils, even those which do not contain potent allergens (such as sandalwood and manuka). In this case the legislation has set a limit of 20%; in concentrations of 20% or less no skin irritation is expected to occur. All Dr. Baumann's Exclusive Bionome Skincare essential oils are in an alcohol dilution in concentrations of less than 20%, in order to completely rule out the possibility of skin irritations. The dosage is also reduced when mixing the essential oil with a base (creams, lotions, oils).

The essential oils in the SPA series are offered 100% undiluted, due to the quantity required to treat the entire body. In the case of pure essential oils, legislators have pointed to a third potential cause of risk: misuse by children. There is the possibility that they could swallow it which could lead to potential bodily harm. Therefore, these products have childproof seals and appropriate warnings notices on the bottles, in accordance with legal requirements.

 

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