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Scientific and background documents for advanced study

Title/subject/source Description/summary/comments Pdf
A Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids.
Journal of Lipid Research, 2005.
This study gives a chemical classification of and an insight into the various types of lipids. Some play an important role in the skin, others do not.
Abc of Allergology.
Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology, 2004.
How a dermatologist tests to find out if an adverse skin reaction is an irritation or an allergy, and what ingredient causes the problem. Short list of possible allergens. Note that many highly potent allergens are "natural".
Advantage of Combined Nutraceuticals.
Nutra/Cosmeceuticals, 2005.

This article explains the importance of nourishment for healthy skin: through food, but also though supplementation of the right substances, such as vitamins and the right SSL (Skin Surface Lipids) directly on and through the skin. Also forskolin (from an Indian plant) is described as being the only ingredient with a proven effect on cellulite when applied topically (directly on the skin by a cream). The DR. BAUMANN products Body Special Light and Body Special Strong contain forskolin for this reason.

Allergic Contact and Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis to Plant Allergens.
Arch. Dermatol., 1999.

An example of the allergenic potential of plants, sunscreens and fragrance. It shows clearly that a 'natural' or 'organic' product does not offer any security or guarantee regarding the health of the skin. On the contrary: natural products can make the skin sick and ugly by including ingredients such as propolis or natural fragrance. Protecting the skin against the sun with chemical sunscreens is another way of making it sick.

Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Patch Testing in Children
Dermatologists See Ket and Chee Leok, s.d.

Explanation of the difference between irritant and allergic skin reactions. Explains also the delayed reaction of allergens: the skin can bear the allergen for a certain time, before the allergic reaction becomes visible. Contains a picture of what an allergic reaction to cosmetic allergens do to human skin. This study also mentions that vitamin E was detected as an allergen. We know from other studies that only synthetic vitamin E can cause this reaction. Synthetic vitamin E, generally used in cosmetic products (tocopherol), is not chemically identical to natural vitamin E. Synthetic vitamin E is not skin endemic, where natural vitamin E is. Allergies to skin endemic substances are not possible. DR. BAUMANN Therefore only uses natural vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol).

Allergic Contact Dermatitis.
ActA Medica Lituanica, 2005.

Investigates allergic reactions to cosmetic and other ingredients that can affect children. Explains the importance of avoiding these substances.

Allergy to Balsam of Peru.
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact allergy information from the New Zealand Dermatological Society on the allergen Balsam of Peru.

Allergy to Coconut Diethanolamide
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact allergy information from the New Zealand Dermatological Society on the allergen Coconut Diethanolamide.

Allergy to Formaldehyde.
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact allergy information from the New Zealand Dermatological Society on the allergen Formaldehyde.

Allergy to Fragrance.
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact allergy information from the New Zealand Dermatological Society on the allergen Fragrance.

Allergy to Imidazolidinyl Urea.
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact allergy information from the New Zealand Dermatological Society on the allergen Imidazolidinyl Urea.

Allergy to Isothiazolinone Mix
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact allergy information from the New Zealand Dermatological Society on the allergen Isothiazolinone Mix.

Allergy to Lavender
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact allergy information from the New Zealand Dermatological Society on the allergen Lavender.

Allergy to Lime
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact allergy information from the New Zealand Dermatological Society on the allergen Lime.

Allergy to Manuka
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact allergy information from the New Zealand Dermatological Society on the allergen Manuka.

Allergy to Parabens.
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact allergy information from the New Zealand Dermatological Society on the allergens Parabens.

Allergy to Quaternium-15.
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact allergy information from the New Zealand Dermatological Society on the allergen Quaternium-15.

Allergy to Rosin (Colophony)
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact allergy information from the New Zealand Dermatological Society on the allergen Rosin (Colophony).

Allergy to Wool Alcohols.
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact allergy information from the New Zealand Dermatological Society on the allergen Wool Alcohols.

Antioxidant Miracle.
Berkeley University California, 1999.

Antioxidant supplementation on the skin can slow down and even reverse wrinkles, fine lines, and other signs of aging. Especially vitamins E and C are important because they are not produced in the body.

Applications of Liposomes.
Handbook of Biological Physics, 1999.

Liposomes are 100% skin endemic and skin compatible. They are used in medicine for their many properties. The same properties of liposomes can be utilized also in the delivery of ingredients in cosmetics. In addition, liposomes as a carrier itself offers advantages because lipids are well hydrated and can reduce the dryness of the skin which is a primary cause for its ageing. Also, liposomes can act as a supply which acts to replenish lipids and, importantly, linolenic acid.

Autoimmune Response Induced by Mineral Oil.
Toxicological Sciences, 2004.

Mineral oils are generally considered nontoxic and have a long history of use in food, cosmetics, medicine, and other products. However, it is also well described that mineral oils have significant inflammatory or immunological effects following their injection, ingestion, or inhalation.

BASF Bisabolol.
BASF, 2005.

Bisabolol is the main active ingredient of the medical plant chamomile (matricaria chamomilla) which is used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years. Bisabolol protects and heals the skin from the effects of daily stress. It is a naturally occurring active ingredient that accelerates the healing process of the skin. Bisabolol can be used with confidence in personal care formulations, especially in products for sensitive skin, baby care, after-shave, and after-sun application. Its added anti-inflammatory properties make it a truly versatile active ingredient for skin care products.

BASF Panthenol
BASF, 2006.

D-panthenol is the provitamin of D-pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). D-pantothenic acid plays a key role in the human intermediary metabolism. It is a part of coenzyme A. Deficiency of vitamin B5 results in many dermatological disorders.

BASF Vitamin A
BASF, 2005.

Retinol is an active ingredient for sophisticated cosmetic skin care products. It is the most effective substance for the care of aging and UV-damaged skin. Most of the signs of aging (wrinkles, lines, and irregular color, lost elasticity) are avoidable. They are almost entirely the result of the way we live and the environment we live in. Retinol accelerates mitosis, increases enzyme activity, and normalizes keratinisation, which improves and normalizes the cell renewal process. The skin regenerates itself throughout its depth. The epidermis and dermis grow thicker, and the skin becomes more elastic. This reduces wrinkles and lines in number, area, length and width. The skin becomes elastic, fresh and adequately supplied with moisture. It looks clearer and has a healthy color. Blemishes in the skin become less conspicuous.

BASF Vitamin C
BASF, 2005.

Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant, promotes collagen formation, lightens the skin. Due to their differences in solubility, Vitamin C protects the aqueous cytosol part of the system, while vitamin E is incorporated into the oil-soluble cell membranes. The synergistic effect of vitamin C and vitamin E is therefore due to the fact that only a combination of a water soluble with a fat soluble antioxidant offers integral protection.

BASF Vitamin E Acetate.
BASF, 2006.

DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate or synthetic vitamin E. Due to their differences in solubility, vitamin C protects the aqueous cytosol part of the system, while vitamin E is incorporated into the oil-soluble cell membranes. The synergistic effect of vitamin C and vitamin E is therefore due to the fact that only a combination of a water-soluble with a fat-soluble antioxidant offers integral protection. In DR. BAUMANN products the much more effective skin  endemic version of vitamin E is used: D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, or natural vitamin E. This significantly improves the quality of the products.

Biological Repair Mechanisms and Skin Health
By Vladimir Badmaev, MD, PhD, Muhammed Majeed, PhD and Lakshmi Prakash, PhD, 2005

Cosmeceuticals or natural cosmetic ingredients such as vitamins, minerals and botanicals have different rates of skin absorption and bio availability, depending on their chemical and biochemical forms. Regulation and enhancement of nutrient or drug delivery to targeted skin cells (bio availability) has great importance in skin care and skin health.

Bleaching Creams
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

"Bleaching creams may contain a variety of ingredients. They may be safe but completely ineffective, or the chemicals may result in side effects and toxicity. Hydroquinone is an effective skin lightening agent. It is no longer available in some parts of the world because of the damaging effects of long term use. Excessive use of hydroquinone in combination with certain foods can result in an unpleasant fish odor in the body secretions such as sweat and urine". DR. BAUMANN produces a very effective Bleaching Cream without this substance.

Botanicals and Contact Allergy
Geisinger Medical Centre, PA, USA, 2007.

An example of a medical center that warns against the use of botanicals and natural ingredients and even advises to stop using botanicals in skin care completely. This is clearly a very exaggerated position. Good professional advice is to use 100% skin endemic substances (SkinIdent) where possible, and where not, to use the natural ingredients that have many skin endemic properties or any other clear benefit for the skin as long as the skin needs it. We only publish this document to show that the "natural = always good" and "natural = always bad" viewpoints both have their not-so-subtle supporters.

Carotenoids and Carotenoids plus Vitamin E protect against Sunburn.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008.

Antioxidants beta-carotene and natural vitamin E supplements reduce sunburn and visible signs of skin aging. Skin will be protected against the sun with an extra SPF factor 2.4-3 after 12 weeks of use.

Changes in Skin Surface Lipid Composition Induced by Severe Caloric Restriction
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1972.

Fasting stops or strongly reduces the normal lipid synthesis of human skin cells and sebaceous glands. Dieting can thus lead to shortages and premature skin-aging if not complemented sufficiently.

Chemical Composition of Evening Primrose Oil.
Swiss Research Institute for Phytopharmaceutical Products, 2005.

Evening primrose oil has the highest known concentrations of linoleic and gamma linolenic acid, essential fatty acids (Vitamin F). These substances must come from food or from cosmetic application as they are not produced by the human body. Evening primrose oil is used in many DR. BAUMANN products.

Chemical Composition of Jojoba Oil
Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2004.

The difference between jojoba oil and all other plant lipids is that this oil is not a triglyceride but a wax ester, one of the necessary components of the human NMF (Natural Moisturizing Factor), and thus of a good and complete skin care product. Jojoba oil is used in many DR. BAUMANN products.

Chemical Composition of Sesame Oil
Swiss Research Institute for Phytopharmaceutical Products, 2005

This oil has high proportions of the necessary components of the human NMF (Natural Moisturizing Factor), and thus of a good and complete skin care product. Sesame oil is used in many DR. BAUMANN products.

Chemical Composition of Sesame Oil II
Oil, Fat and Wax laboratory, Bureau of Chemistry, USA, 1924.

Historical document. Sesame oil is an important part of the diet of many natives in India, China, Japan, other parts of Asia and Africa. In the early 19th Century it was rather new to the USA. Sesame oil is used in many DR. BAUMANN products.

Coenzyme Q10.
Jonathan Reilly, 2005.

Coenzyme Q10 is often used in cosmetic products. This article sums up the proven effects of Q10 in some very special cases of Q10 deficiency. There is no scientific proof of Q10 deficiencies in the skin or any proven positive effect of Q10-supplementation on the human skin. It is one of the many examples of an ingredient with proven effects in medicine that is then used in skin care products to provide a marketing boost. DR. BAUMANN does not use coenzyme Q10 because its function on the skin is not factually proven but a marketing illusion. Consumers lose money and time believing such illusions. This time and money is better spent using ingredients with a proven effect.

Concentrations of Parabens in Human Breast
Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2004.

Preservatives (parabens) can penetrate through human skin and accumulate in human fat tissue. They are thought to play a role in the development of breast cancer.

Contact Dermatitis
British Association of Dermatologists, 2008.

Contact urticaria is a skin disorder that can be caused by preservatives, fragrances and plant products.

Contact Urticaria
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2007.

Contact urticaria is a skin disorder that can be caused by preservatives, fragrances and plant products.

Cosmeceuticals: An emerging concept
Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, M. D. University, 2004

What are cosmeceuticals? This article provides an introduction. DR. BAUMANN offers the best of the cosmeceutical approach and even better: the bionome concept. Anti-aging at its best.

Cosmetics Allergy
Auckland Allergy Clinic, 2004

"Cosmetics are an important part of our daily life. It is estimated that the average adult uses at least 7 different skin care products each day, so it’s not surprising that reactions to these products are very common. Reactions can be seen after the first application or after years of use. There is a trend towards using "natural products", with the misconception that natural products are "healthier" and cause fewer reactions than artificial products. This myth is debunked when people are reminded that most allergens are "natural” proteins."

Crodamazon Maracuja Oil.
Croda, 2002.

DR. BAUMANN products contain other high quality natural oils than the one described here. But this document gives a good description of the value of these oils for the skin.

Dermatology Insights 1.
The American Academy of Dermatology,

Some useful tips on hair dyes, fingernails, protection against the sun, acne and winter conditions.

Dermatology Insights 2.
The American Academy of Dermatology, 2002.

Some useful tips on sun damaged skin, possible side effects of Botox, protection against insects when traveling, and an article on skin cancer.

Dermatology Insights 3.
The American Academy of Dermatology, 2000.

Articles on children skin care, acne and rosacea, warning against sun studio tanning.

Dietary Supplementation With Oils Rich in Omega-3 and Omega-6.
Departments of Dermatology and lnternal Medicine, University of California, in The Journal of Nutrition, 1989.

Supplementation with oils rich in omega-3 and omega-6 (evening primrose oil, rich in gamma-linolenic acid (= omega-6)) has been reported to alleviate the clinical signs of atopic eczema and other dry skin conditions. These oils are used in DR. BAUMANN skin care products and food supplements.

E-book Lipid Glossary.
Karlshamns Oils and Fats Academy, 2004.

An overview and classification of lipids. Lipids are compounds based on fatty acids, alcohols or sphingosine. Included in the glossary are the names of fatty acids and lipids, the major oils and fats, terms associated with their analysis, refining, and modification, and the major journals and societies concerned with lipid chemistry. Some of them play an important role in the NMF of the human skin, as epidermal lipids, vitamins or sebaceous lipids. Those lipids related with DR. BAUMANN research and used in the products are highlighted.

Effects of Natural Products on Contact Dermatitis.
Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Spain, 2004.

Description of how an allergic reaction is built up. Only weeks, months or years after the first application of an allergen, a delayed type of immune response will cause the visible allergic reaction. Of the approximately six million chemicals in the environment, roughly 3,000 are potential contact allergens. Many organic substances, natural or synthetic, as well as some metals, have the capability to induce dermatitis. A natural product can either act directly as an allergen or, in some cases, upon metabolism it can suffer a structural modification, which gives it the capacity to act as an allergen. In the end, it comes down to choosing the best natural ingredients for the skin, and to exclude the others. When beneficial plant extracts like aloe vera or tea tree also have a risk for allergy, they should be used as long as the beneficial results are desired and needed, but not for a life long daily skin care regime.

Efficacy of Topically Applied Antioxidants.
SÖFW-Journal, 2006.

Aging of skin is strongly correlated to the existence of free radicals which are generated by external and internal stress factors. The skin, as a link between the exterior and interior milieu of human body is eminently exposed to the oxidative stress of both sides. Even formulations containing only 5% of liposomes with encapsulated active ingredients show significant increase of the SAP (Skin Anti-oxidative Protection). That means that a low concentration of antioxidants will cross the stratum corneum and that these low amounts are sufficient to increase the skins anti-oxidative activity almost immediately. Appropriate carrier systems such as liposomes protect the antioxidants from oxidation, enhance the penetration into skin and guarantee a standardized penetration profile. The selection of appropriate cosmetic formulations can enhance the penetration through the SC (Stratum Corneum).

Etiopathogenesis and Treatment of Dry Skin.
Dermatology Clinic, Medical University of Lublin,

A good overview of how to prevent or treat dry skin. Dry skin requires systematic and complex care to restore the damaged epidermal barrier. The appropriate function of the skin is possible only if the stratum corneum contains adequate amounts of water and lipids. Regular application of moisturizers and substances supplementing lipid deficiencies as well as avoiding irritating factors is the basis for the dry and sensitive skin care.

Excretion Rate and Composition of Skin Surface.
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Inönü University, 2007.

The lipids on the skin surface are derived from both sebaceous glands and epidermis. Sebum is an oily material secreted by the sebaceous glands onto the skin surface and mainly contains squalene, triglyceride, wax esters, cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. Sterol and sterol esters are generally derived from the epidermis, while wax esters and squalene are of sebaceous origin; triacylglycerols originate from both sources. DR. BAUMANN products are composed of these substances. Restoring the NMF of the skin means complementing it with the same skin-endemic substances as are naturally present, provided pure (SkinIdent) or as components of some skin similar natural vegetable oils (DR. BAUMANN and BeauCaire). Mineral oils and silicon oils do not play any role in the natural composition of the skin and therefore should not be used.

Facial Eczema
National Eczema Society, London, 2004.

Cosmetics are the usual culprits in allergic contact dermatitis affecting the face. They contain fragrances, wool alcohols (lanolin), preservatives and dyes that can all cause sensitization. Allergy to ingredients of hair dyes may also cause severe allergic contact dermatitis of the face. Many patients with eczema use DR. BAUMANN products because they are not able to use anything else anymore. Of course, using healthy skin endemic products before a sickness causes damaged skin is important.

Fat Soluble Vitamins A, D, E, and K
Nutrition Handbook, s.d.

A summary on the role and the importance of vitamins for the body's health. As the skin is the body's largest organ, the importance of a vitamin rich diet in maintaining a healthy and thus beautiful appearance cannot be stressed enough.

Fatty Acid Composition of Sesame Oil
African Journal of Biotechnology, 2007.

In cultivated sesame, seed oil content ranged from 40.4 to 59.8%. Fatty acids of this seed oil are mainly oleic (32.7 to 53.9%), linoleic (39.3 to 59%), palmitic (8.3 to 10.9%) and stearic (3.4 to 6.0%). The human skin needs these components as well. The linoleic acid concentration of 40-60% is of huge importance as this essential vitamin F can not be produced by the body. Many DR. BAUMANN products contain the necessary amount of sesame oil for this and other reasons.

Fatty Acid Transfer between Multilamellar Liposomes and Fatty Acid binding proteins
The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1984.

Liposomes are one of the most investigated skin endemic ingredients used in medicine and high level cosmetics. It is also one of the most important anti-aging ingredients used in DR. BAUMANN therapy. Products containing liposomes and natural oils with high proportions of vitamin F (essential unsaturated fatty acids) will effectively repair cell damage in the skin. This study is an example of how liposomes bind the fatty acids and deliver them to the cells.

Five Types of Parabens Detected Intact in Human Breast Tumors
Cornell University Program on Breast Cancer and Environmental Risk Factors (BCERF), 2004.

"A report from 1984 estimated that parabens were used in over 13,200 different cosmetic products. A study was conducted to assess whether any of the six parabens commonly used in consumer products in Europe could be detected in human breast tumors. The names of the parabens studied were: methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, isobutylparaben, butylparaben and benzylparaben. The study is the first report of the detection of parabens in human breast tumors. The authors are careful to point out that the results of this study do not show that any of the parabens caused breast cancer in these women. This study is not evidence of cause and effect. The study did show that five of the six parabens widely used in consumer products can be detected intact (not changed or metabolized) in human tissues. This is an important initial finding, but more research is needed to see if exposure to parabens does or does not affect breast cancer risk. In a survey of products in my own bathroom and kitchen, I found a type of paraben listed as an ingredient in liquid hand soap, two hand lotions, one out of three shampoos (the “natural” brand was the one with the paraben)! Given the ubiquitous nature of paraben use in consumer products and recent evidence of the estrogenicity of parabens, I would agree with other scientists who have called for a reassessment of the safety of parabens."

Although it is not proved that parabens cause skin cancer, in the early 1990s DR. BAUMANN already decided not to use parabens and other preservatives because of their high allergenic potential on human skin. The estrogenicity and detection in the human fat tissue can only be another good reason not to use these substances.

Fragrance Chemicals Contact Allergens.
Information of the European Community, 2007.

Background information on fragrance chemicals, which have been identified as contact allergens in consumers. These chemicals can be synthetic but are mainly of natural (plant) origin. Natural fragrances therefore are as allergenic as synthetic fragrances. Consumers should avoid products with these substances as much as possible.

How to Use Preservatives in Cosmetics
Somerset Cosmetic Company, s.d.

This document gives a list of common preservatives stating that making cosmetics without preservatives is virtually impossible. Indeed, it is difficult, but DR. BAUMANN has found ways to make all products without added preservatives, using new technologies of production and the strong synergetic power of its natural ingredients. The shelf life of all products is the same as those of standard products with preservatives. Minimum 36 months.

Human Epidermal Lipids Characterization and Modulation
Journal of Lipid Research, 1983

To know the composition of the skin's endemic lipids is to know how to make a high quality skin care product. The skin is made up of different substances like lactic acid, vitamins and urea, and the following lipids: polar lipids, cholesterol, neutral lipids free sterols, free fatty acids, triglycerides, wax esters, squalene and ceramides. DR. BAUMANN products copy the composition of human skin very closely. It is worth noting that the polar lipids (phospolipids) are nearly absent from the upper skin layer (the SC, or stratum corneum). This is because the SC is mainly filled with hydrophobic (water resisting) lipids that function to keep water out of the body. The polar lipids are hydrophilic (water binding) and keep the necessary water in the skin. Hydration of the SC is therefore not possible without adding more polar lipids filled with water. This is exactly what liposomes do. Active hydration of the skin without liposomes is simply impossible. Good hydration with liposomes is a necessary step in reducing the wrinkles caused by aging. DR. BAUMANN offers you the right liposomes with all the other necessary ingredients but, very importantly, without allergenic substances such as preservatives and fragrance, which could penetrate into the skin and pose a health threat.

Human Epidermal Lipids.
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Keele, UK, 1990.

Another study that describes how the skin makes its own lipids as a protection against the external world. This process is called lipid synthesis and is only possible in healthy skin cells, which have the necessary bacteria and vitamins to do their job well. Preservatives and other substances are thought to disturb this process, by killing the bacteria in the skin. "The stratum corneum is the raison d'être of the epidermis, and the raison d'être of the stratum corneum is the epidermal barrier". It is this barrier that keeps water in the body and harmful substances out.  Also, a deficiency of linoleic acid in the diet leads to increased water loss through the skin because it leads to a lack of ceramid synthesis in the skin barrier. It is precisely these and other essential lipids that are supplemented by DR. BAUMANN skin care products. 

Human Skin Condition and its Associations with Nutrient Concentrations.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary and serum nutrient concentrations on skin hydration, the sebum content of the skin, and the pH of the skin surface. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the relationship between nutrient concentrations in serum and skin condition. Conclusion: Several associations between nutrients in serum and diet and skin condition were observed, indicating that changes in baseline nutritional status may affect skin condition. Skin condition, in general, is defined by a combination of surface texture, color, and physiologic properties, such as hydration, sebum content, and surface acidity. The presence of an adequate amount of water in the stratum corneum, i.e. hydration, is important for a general appearance of a soft and smooth skin. Sebum, which is secreted by the sebaceous glands together with other epidermal lipids, helps maintain the hydration of the skin by providing a protective lipid layer on the skin surface that reduces fluid loss through the epidermis. Moreover, skin lipids and amino acids contribute to surface acidity, and a low pH protects the skin from pathogens. These skin characteristics are known to be affected by endogenous and environmental factors, including aging, exposure to sunlight, chemicals, and mechanical damage. It is also worth noting that drinking a lot does not increase the skin hydration. For that, liposomes are required.

Information Requirements for Botanical Cosmetic Ingredients
Cosmetic Science Technology, 2006.

An article by a botanical extract manufacturer who reveals that the natural and organic trend in cosmetics is in fact mainly driven by marketing. The majority of botanical extracts are still used for "label copy". This means they have no function, but are used to give a “natural” look to the packaging labels. Fantasy marketing documents are created to create the illusion that natural and organic plants are healthy (to the skin) and have all sorts of qualities. The idea behind this is that the customers want organic and natural. "Providing comprehensive marketing documents for individual plants makes it easier (...) to create a specific fantasy". Consumers are simply misled. The only defense against such false natural and organic product claims is correct information. There are very few good natural skin care brands on the market. We believe DR. BAUMANN makes the best possible "natural" skin care. And not only “natural”, but “bionome”. This value of our claims can be checked by informing oneself as to what the skin really needs and by looking at the ingredients, which are published on this website.
This article also
lists the most common allergenic fragrance substances: 18 are natural, 8 are synthetic (chemical).

Ingredient Information on the Use of Mineral Oil.
Mary Kay Cosmetics, 2004.

This document is a typical defense for the use of mineral oil in cosmetic products by a well known brand.
1. Mineral oil is better than plant oils because it has a longer shelf life. Of course this is not an argument for the quality of the ingredient. If you follow that argument th
en unhealthy food in cans would also be better than fresh vegetables.
2. Longer shelf live makes preservatives unnecessary.
If so, why do almost all products with mineral oil contain preservatives?
3. No allergic reactions. Of course
, this is not an argument for quality. It only means that there is little chance for an allergic reaction. Mineral oil is paraffin from petroleum, just like candles. Candles will not cause allergic reactions either, but this does not mean that the skin should be nourished with candle paraffin.
4. It is a good solvent.
True, but what is the advantage for the skin?
5. It assists the skin in retaining moisture. Plastic and latex will do the same.
Skin similar and skin endemic natural oils will also retain the skin's moisture, as well as providing protection and nourishment (vitamins) to the skin, unlike mineral oil.
6. It is non-comedogenic, meaning that it does not cause whiteheads, blackheads and other blemishes. Even if this w
ere true (there are reports that indicate otherwise), this also is the case for the skin similar and skin endemic natural oils. It does not explain why mineral oil would be better for the skin.
it is highly useful for the industry - it is handy and it is cheap – but not for human skin.

The scientific studies on this page make it very clear that mineral oils are not suitable for good skin care therapy.

Interaction among Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Beta-Carotene.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1995.

Study of the importance of the synergetic effects of vitamins E and C in countering UV damage by free radicals. Alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) is more effective than ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in scavenging radicals in membranes and lipoproteins. Ascorbic acid reduces the resulting alpha-tocopheroxyl radical efficiently to regenerate a-tocopherol and possibly to inhibit the oxidation induced by alpha-tocopheroxyl radicals. Alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene may exert a cooperative effect by residing and scavenging radicals at different positions in the lipophilic compartment. Direct interaction between the beta-carotene and the ascorbic acid is not important. In conclusion, the study finds that the combination of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and ascorbic acid may be effective in inhibiting oxidative damage, especially in vivo where oxygen concentration is low.

Jojoba Oil Lipid Composition
Desert Oil, 2004.

The components of jojoba oil are very similar to some of human skin, especially the wax esters, and are for that reason a very high quality part of a good bionome NMF-copying skin care product. Many DR. BAUMANN products contain jojoba oil for this reason.

Röding and Ghyczy, 1991.

One of the most comprehensive and complete studies on the benefits and effects of liposomes on human skin.

Liposomes In Topical Drug Delivery
Investments in  Ophthalmology, 1984

Liposomes were first described by Bangham in 1968, who demonstrated that when phospholipids are suspended in excess aqueous solution they spontaneously form multilamellar concentric bilayer vesicles. The bilayer structure of liposomes and human living (skin) cells is very similar. Liposomes can be loaded with drugs for medicinal therapy (this study is an example for penicillin), or vitamins for cosmetic skin care therapy. The vitamins will be delivered directly into the cells. This is very important because human skin cells produce the necessary components to build the stratum corneum and vitamins (such as A, E and C) repair the damage caused by free radicals. Using the right sort of liposomes can therefore be called a rejuvenating skin cell therapy. Anti-aging at its best.

Liposomes loaded with Vitamins E and A
Lipotec, Spain, 2005.

A typical product information sheet from a liposome producer. Figure 1 shows how liposomes are structured and how they store vitamins and water for epidermal delivery. The last page shows the broad spectrum of preservatives that must be used to keep the product stable (we have indicated these with a red line). These preservatives are all highly allergenic, and are also delivered into the skin. Therefore, DR. BAUMANN has developed its own liposomes that remain stable without the need for preservatives. Our customers thus receive the best possible anti-aging therapy without the usual accompanying health risk.

Mineral Oil.
Arbonne International, 2004.

DR. BAUMANN is not the only company that does not use mineral oil. Balanced positions on mineral oil are  rarely found on the Internet. Some wild and unscientific statements exaggerate and even warn about cancer risks (an attempt to scare consumers). This balanced text offers a good summary of the legitimate reasons not to use mineral oils. 

Molecular Properties of a Stratum Corneum Model Lipid System.
Biophysical Journal, 1995.

"The skin is a barrier for most substances entering or leaving the body, and yet selective permeability for certain molecules, including water molecules, is an essential function of skin. The origin of the selective permeability of the skin, and its quantitative prediction in terms of the relevant physical and chemical properties of skin and of penetrating molecules, have been the focal point for the study of skin permeability. The outermost layer of (...) skin is the stratum corneum. The stratum comeum is composed of -15 layers of dead cells (corneocytes) in a lipid matrix and consists of 5-15% lipids (dry weight), 75-80% proteins, and 5-10% unknown materials. Despite their overall small percentage in the stratum corneum, lipids play an important role in the selective permeability of the skin. Removal of either the entire stratum corneum or just the lipid component of the stratum corneum in the skin results in similar increases in water flux through the modified skin. In addition, the composition and structural arrangement of stratum corneum lipids affect topical drug delivery. Percentages of lipids found in the stratum corneum, 55% ceramides,25% cholesterol, 15% free fatty acids, and 5% cholesterol sulfate." Note: silicon and hydrocarbons (mineral oils) are not a part of the epidermal lipid structure.

Nanostructured Materials for Drug Delivery, Liposomes
Journal of Physics, 2005.

Many studies prove that loaded nanoparticles (liposomes) bring their load into the skin. This study measures this effect for hydroquinone. Figure 1 (a) shows a liposome. Figure 1 (d) shows the deposit of hydroquinone in the skin by the liposomes. After 3 days 80% of the hydroquinone was brought into the skin. On their website the New Zealand Dermatological Society writes: "Hydroquinone is an effective skin lightening agent. It is no longer available in some parts of the world because of the damaging effects of long term use" (see the article 'Bleaching Creams on this page). Using liposomes in a skin care product means that the other ingredients of the product also penetrate the skin. Therefore, only healthy, skin endemic or skin similar ingredients should be used together with liposomes. Damaging or allergic ingredients like hydroquinone, fragrances, preservatives and others should always be avoided. When they are present in liposome products, they increase the risk of adverse skin reactions (such as allergies) and should certainly not be used on the skin.

Natural Cosmetics
SPF, 2005.

Comments on natural cosmetics by cosmetic chemists. Potassium sorbate and benzoic acid are used as natural preservatives and work when the pH value of a product is lowered to 4-4.8. Potassium sorbate and benzoic acid can also be found in nature but are in fact produced synthetically and are thus chemical preservatives as well. These are preservatives with all negative implications. It is very important to stress that lowering the acid protection mantle to pH of 4-4.8 can have negative consequences. This value is too acid, and not pH-neutral. A balanced pH-value for the skin, so that problems are avoided, is around 5.5. This value should be maintained. In their efforts to make a product simply 'organic' or 'natural', without thinking about the health consequences, producers make poor decisions. This text also explains that a good selection of natural oils (triglycerides) should be made in order to avoid greasy products that are not very skin compatible. 

Natural Preservatives.
SPF, 2004.

A list of the most commonly used preservatives. A description of how parabens are often avoided for marketing reasons (paraben free!) alone and not for health reasons, with the result that parabens are replaced by other preservatives. This text explains how this is done and what preservatives are used. Note: So-called natural preservatives are just normal preservatives.

Natural Preservatives.
Tony Dweck, 2005.

Tony Dweck is one of the world's specialists on the natural preservation of cosmetics. He describes a few techniques of preservation without adding preservatives that are also used by DR. BAUMANN. 
"There are many cases where plants may contain paraben-type compounds". This fact
means that some cosmetic brands will tell you that parabens are very natural, completely neglecting that they are always chemically produced and as allergenic as ever.
A mixture of essential oils is often used as preservative and fragrance mix in natural and organic products, even those claiming to be preservative-free. Of course
, these essential oils can be highly allergenic, especially when used on the skin in leave-on products.

Natural Organic Beauty.
New York Times, 2007.

"The National Organic Program is a marketing program, not a safety program”. Be careful not to be fooled by the natural/organic marketers. It is just another way of making money. 

NMF Composition
Zschimmer & Schwarz Italiana, 2004.

Because a good and complete skin care product should nourish and complement the skin where it fails to do so by itself, it is important to know the exact composition of the skin's natural protection (stratum corneum NMF + sebum). This document stresses the importance of a 5.5 pH value for healthy skin. It also provides a good introduction to understanding how the skin functions and how it is in fact a factory producing its own building bricks and mortar, its own protection. Good bionome skin care is empowering this process and supplementing it where necessary. Complete skin care therefore needs, in addition to the natural lipids that forms its base (with triglycerides, fatty acids, wax esters, cholesterol, glycerin, etc.),  urea, minerals, lactic acid or citric acid and vitamins. Even though there is not immediately a clear difference between skin care with and without these ingredients, if they are not present, the skin will be in poorer health over the longer term. This can easily be compared with food: nutrition with or without the necessary vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids, etc. will surely make a difference in the short or long term. When this difference becomes visible, it will already be too late to obtain a highly satisfying result.  Anti-aging should preferably be started early as a preventive measure.

Nutritional Protection against Skin Damage from Sun Light
The Annual Review of Nutrition, 2004.

"Dietary protection is provided by carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbate, flavonoids, or n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, contributing to maintenance resistance as part of lifelong protection. It is important to note that the nutritional aspect focused on in this review is complementary to topical photoprotection, and these two concepts of prevention should certainly not be considered mutually exclusive. One major aspect regarding dietary photoprotection is the time frame: As noted in all studies so far carried out, there is a time of approximately eight to ten weeks until protection against erythema formation becomes significant. Skin turnover and skin biochemistry therefore require this time frame, whereas protection by topical sunscreen is practically instantaneous". DR. BAUMANN uses topical (on top of the skin) and nutritional (oral intake) supplementation and protection.

Nutritional Skin Care Health Effects of Micronutrients and Fatty Acids
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2001.

Skin functioning and skin attractiveness depend on nutrition. This is evidenced by the development of skin lesions in response to nutritional deficiencies. Dietary supplementation with the deficient vitamins, minerals, or essential fatty acids improves skin conditions in these situations. The role of vitamins E and C, beta-carotene and essential fatty acids is well investigated. Regarding the positive effects of the oral supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids it is important to understand that "it is the ratio of n3 to n6 fatty acids rather than the absolute amounts of the fatty acids that is the determining factor". Taking supplements with omega-3 AND omega-6 is therefore absolutely wrong, as it does not improve their ratio. Normal food contains a lot of omega-6 and very little omega-3. This explains why most humans have a omega-3 deficit, and not an omega-6 deficit.  Therefore only omega-3 should be supplemented. DR. BAUMANN only offers an omega-3 supplement, and not an omega-6 supplement.

Organic Cosmetics Natural Health
Narelle Chenery, Director of Research and Development, Miessence, 2003.

How do we know what we are buying is really natural? Many natural or organic brands mislead consumers. This article describes very well how this is done, and how to detect it. It comes down to reading and understanding the labels with the ingredients. This is a very good article from that point of view.
However, the article does not answer the most important question: is natural ALWAYS better. Are natural ingredients always good for the skin? Can we never use such synthetic ingredients as surfactants? On this point, DR. BAUMANN disagrees with the position of the author.

Although she argues that natural ingredients are always preferable to synthetic ones, the position of DR. BAUMANN is that natural ingredients are not necessarily beneficial, and may even cause harm, whereas some synthetic substances can be both beneficial and safe.

The author’s position is that synthetic surfactants should never be used. Her reasoning is that because surfactants can be contaminated "with dioxane, a potent carcinogen" and can "undergo nitrosation with other chemicals to form nitrosamines, which are carcinogenic”, they should never be used. She cites a study to back up her view: “One study has found that over 40% of products containing triethanolamine (TEA) were contaminated with these potent carcinogens". In our view, however, this ignores the fact that surfactants themselves are very safe ingredients, although they can be contaminated by harmful substances. At DR. BAUMANN, we are well aware of the risk of contamination of surfactants, but we also recognize that surfactants can be very helpful in cleansing the skin of oily substances, so as to allow the proper penetration of nourishing ingredients such as liposomes. Our view is that surfactants can be used for their beneficial properties, without risk, as long as the producer takes the appropriate measures to guarantee that they are free from contamination. DR. BAUMANN guarantees that the surfactants used in a small number of DR. BAUMANN products are free of any contamination. 

But as only six or seven products of the hundreds offered by DR. BAUMANN contain surfactants, customers who wish to avoid surfactants altogether can easily do so, for example by using a cleansing milk instead of a cleansing gel.

Parabens and Breast Cancer
Breast Cancer Fund, 2008.

Advice from the Breast Cancer Fund: The U.K. study highlights the need for more research on the potential link between products containing parabens and increased breast cancer risk. The authors also point out that prenatal exposure to parabens, and the potential effect on adult cancer risk, needs to be studied. Animal studies indicate that parabens also may affect development of the male reproductive system. While research continues, however, the accumulated evidence makes a compelling case for taking a precautionary approach, individually and collectively, to the manufacture and use of parabens.

Preservatives in Skin Creams e-Book Study 297.
Ministry of Environment and Energy, Denmark, 1999.

"Ingredient labeling on cosmetic products is mandatory according to EU’s Cosmetic Directive. It is important that the ingredient labeling is correct, because this can be used by consumers to avoid the use of the products containing specific chemical(s) they can not tolerate. Furthermore, dermatologists may use the ingredient labeling on cosmetic products as a guide to identify specific chemical(s) in a cosmetic product which may be cause of skin reaction in certain person(s). Fragrances and preservatives are the main causes of allergic contact dermatitis by the use of cosmetics. The preservatives in stay-on cosmetics, for example skin creams, are more often the cause of skin reactions compared to that by wash-off cosmetic products such as shampoos. In the present investigation, 67 skin creams were analyzed for the contents of 23 selected preservatives (22 permitted and 1 non-permitted) to verify whether these products complied with the Cosmetic Directive with respect to ingredient labeling as well as with respect to maximum allowed concentrations of the preservatives. One or more parabens were present in 86.5% (n=58) of the investigated products, 2-phenoxy ethanol in 49% (n=33) of the products, and formaldehyde/ formaldehyde releasers were present in 51% (n=34) of the products."

Ninety-eight percent of all products (even the so called hypoallergenic products) contain preservatives, including those of such well known brands  as The Body Shop, Biotherm, Lancôme, Elisabeth Arden, Clarins, Nivea, Hennes & Mauritz Cosmetics, Clearasil, and L’Oréal. The tested product of Mellisa 'natural skin care products' also contained many preservatives, even though the label on the product mentioned no preservatives! DR. BAUMANN products never contain preservatives.

Products for Sensitive and Atopic Skin
University of Montpellier, 2003.

"Sensitive skin presents a tendency to hyperreact to topical agents (skin care creams) with symptoms of dry skin such as erythema and scaling and also different forms of discomfort such as stinging, burning and itching. Atopic and sensitive skins are both characterized by a disrupted barrier function. The lack of intercellular lipids such as cholesterol, ceramides, essential fatty acids -organized in multilayered lipid structures between the corneocytes in the intact barrier- causes enhanced transepidermal water loss, and an inadequate stimulation of nerve endings resulting in heightened neurosensory input." It is therefore absolutely necessary to ensure that creams for both sick and healthy skin are as good as they can be. This article provides a few principles that should be followed.

Protective Effects of Topical Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate.
Fırat University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Department of Pharmacology,
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Elazıg, Turkey, 2001.

"Reactive oxygen species can be generated by daily exposure of the skin to ultraviolet light and may cause some subchronic and chronic skin disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible preventive role of alfa-tocopherol acetate (ATA) on ultraviolet B (UVB) induced peroxidation. Topical application of ATA prevented the UVB irradiation-induced reduction of scavenging enzyme activities in skin and erythrocytes. In conclusion, we suggest that topical applications of ATA before UVB irradiation is effective in protecting the skin from unwanted effects of UVB irradiation." This is one of many studies proving the beneficial and UV protecting effects of natural vitamin E on the skin. "In conclusion, the topical application of ATA for three weeks before UVB irradiation can significantly protect the skin against UVB-induced damage by enhancing the antioxidant capacity and also by reducing the lipid peroxidation products."

Risks of Petrolatum Skin Care Infants
Advances in Skin & Wound Care, 2007.

"Neonatal (new born children, TM) health care has continued to advance over a period spanning three decades. However, the treatment of preterm and term infant skin has lagged behind. Current AWHONN and NANN guidelines call for the use of a petrolatum-based product in the neonate setting. Petrolatum may pose significant risks associated with NICU fire hazards, barrier occlusion, microbial contamination and toxin absorption. In order to reduce infant mortality and improve neonatal skin care, advanced emollient technologies should be considered." This study gives many good reasons why it is necessary to use non-occlusive skin care products and why occlusive oils like mineral oils and lanolin should be avoided.

Saving your Skin
Department of Dermatology, University of California, 2005.

Describes some causes of aging skin (most of them natural). A brief and incomplete overview of some ingredients that are helpful against skin aging.

Silicones as Alternatives to Hydrocarbons
Dow Corning, 1993.

A producer of silicon oil describes its advantages over mineral oils. Silicon oil is not environmentally damaging, and is better for the skin than mineral oil. However, silicon oils are not the best choice for the skin. Since 1993 there have been many studies - some of them can  be found on this page - that show that natural oils and skin endemic oils (epidermal lipids and sebaceous lipids) have the best benefits for the skin and are the preferred oils to use. DR. BAUMANN uses neutral silicon oils instead of biological, active, natural oils in only a few products for people with very sensitive skin. For these people a more neutral, less active product on a base of silicon oils is offered, in order to keep the skin well protected and nourished but not too activated.

Skin Aging
Neira Puizina, MD, PhD, Asst. Professor, Laboratory of Dermatopathology, Department of Dermatovenerology, Split Clinical Hospital Center, Acta Dermatoven, 2008.

Summary of measures one can take to maximize anti-aging."There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsic aging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, thinning skin with exaggerated expression lines. Extrinsically aged skin is characterized by photo damage as wrinkles, pigmented lesions, patchy hypopigmentations, and actinic keratoses. Timely protection including physical and chemical sunscreens, as well as avoiding exposure to intense UV irradiation, is most important. A network of antioxidants such as vitamins E and C, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, glutathione, and others can reduce signs of aging. Further anti-aging products are three generations of retinoids, among which the first generation is broadly accepted. A diet with lot of fruits and vegetables containing antioxidants is recommended as well as exercise two or three times a week." And: "The use of physical filters is encouraged. The most frequently used of these are microparticles of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide with diameters in the range of 10 to 100 nm. They are capable of reflecting a broad spectrum of UVA and UVB rays. They do not penetrate into the skin and thus have low potential for developing toxic or allergic effects."

Skin Physiology, Irritants, Dry Skin and Moisturizers.
US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Washington State Department, 2006.

One of the best recent summaries of how the skin works and how it can be protected. "Skin is a physical barrier to the environment. It is the alteration of the barrier properties and actual damage to this barrier that causes dryness and dermatitis when the skin is exposed to water, soaps, gloves, chemicals and harsh weather conditions. The repair of the damage by moisturizers is related to the physical and chemical interactions of the ingredients with the natural skin barrier." The entire study merits careful reading.

Soaps and Cleansers.
New Zealand Dermatological Society, 2008.

How to determine your skin type, and what cleansers to use. "To determine your skin type, wash your face and pat dry. Wait for an hour, then press a tissue to your forehead, cheeks, chin and nose. If your face is not shiny and there's no oily residue on the tissue, you have normal skin. If your face looks/feels tight or is flaky and there is no oily residue on the tissue, you have dry skin. If your face is shiny and the tissue reveals an oily residue, you have oily skin. Many people have combination skin: the T-zone (forehead, nose, chin) is oily but the cheeks are normal or dry."

Stimulation of Collagen Production in Human Fibroblasts with Vitamin C.
Cosmetic Science Technology, 2007.

"Collagen is produced in the fibroblasts of the human dermis and is essential for healthy, firm skin. Both the quality and quantity of collagen decrease in ageing skin, often due to the effect of external factors such as exposure to the sun, especially UVA radiation. The result of this cross-linking is that the skin loses its elasticity. In the past, topical application of soluble animal collagen was used in an attempt to stimulate the formation of collagen in the skin. However, these tests were unsuccessful, as collagen cannot penetrate the epidermis." Like vitamin A, vitamin C stimulates the production of collagen. Dr. Baumann uses vitamins A, E and C to counter aging. The vitamins in Dr. Baumann liposome products are encapsulated in multilamellar liposomes, which ensure the highest efficacy. Encapsulated vitamin C boosts the collagen synthesis by 800%, giving the skin the needed firmness and support against the signs of aging.

Summary of the Role of Vitamin E in Human Metabolic Processes.
WHO expert consultation on human vitamin and mineral requirements, 2002.

"The most important form of vitamin E is d-alfa-tocopherol". It is between 100 and 3,333% more active than other forms of vitamin E, as shown in Table 22. This strong biologic activity is one of the reasons that the natural d-alfa-tocopherol is used in DR. BAUMANN products, and not the more widely used (cheaper) synthetic forms of tocopherol.

Supplementation with Evening Primrose Oil in Atopic Dermatitis
Lipids, 1991.

This study shows the beneficial effect of oral supplementation with evening primrose oil (high concentration of omega-6 fatty acids). Similar results were shown when applied topically.

The Dangers of Parabens.
Organica, 1999.

An article which shows that organic producers, whilst refusing parabens and other preservatives, do accept other allergenic preservatives. Such organic products do not offer enough health protection to consumers. The bionome skin care developed by DR. BAUMANN offers this protection.

The Influence of Ingested Mineral Oil
Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, University of Southern California, 1952.

Many studies show that oral ingestion of mineral oil (petrolatum was tested) has a negative effect on the absorption of necessary essential vitamins and a disturbing effect on normal cell growth. This leads to a reduction of essential fatty acids and severe health and skin problems. It shows clearly that mineral oil has a disturbing effect on normal biological functions. Later studies show this is also the case when mineral oil is applied on the skin directly. DR. BAUMANN does not approve of the animal testing methods employed for this study.

The Lipid Library - Ceramides
The Lipid Library, 2008.

Learn more about the importance, structure and biological functions of this important component of human skin, which is used in many DR. BAUMANN products.

The Lipid Library - Cholesterol
The Lipid Library, 2008.

Learn more about the importance, structure and biological functions of this important component of human skin, which is used in many DR. BAUMANN products.

The Lipid Library - 
Free Fatty Acids

In/from:The Lipid Library, 2008. 

Learn more about the importance, structure and biological functions of this important component of human skin, which is used in many DR. BAUMANN products.

The Lipid Library - 
Lipids Definitions

The Lipid Library, 2008.

Learn more about the importance, structure and biological functions of this important component of human skin, which is used in many DR. BAUMANN products.

The Lipid Library - 
Lipids Functions

The Lipid Library, 2008.

Learn more about the importance, structure and biological functions of this important component of human skin, which is used in many DR. BAUMANN products.

The Lipid Library - Omega-3 and other essential fatty acids
The Lipid Library, 2008.

Learn more about the importance, structure and biological functions of this important component of human skin, which is used in DR. BAUMANN products. "Linoleic and linolenic acids cannot be synthesized in animal tissues and must be obtained from the diet, i.e. ultimately from plants. There is an absolute requirement for these ‘essential fatty acids‘ for growth, reproduction and good health. Young animals deprived of these fatty acids in the diet rapidly display the effects, including diminished growth, liver and kidney damage, and dermatitis (...). The effects of essential fatty acid deficiency have been seen in human infants, on adults on parenteral nutrition or with certain genetic disorders". These important and essential omega-3 fatty acids are an essential part of many DR. BAUMANN topical skin care products (in the form of evening primrose oil and sesame oil) and in a very important nutritional supplement.

The Lipid Library - Phosphatidylcholine.
The Lipid Library, 2008.

Learn more about the importance, structure and biological functions of this important component of human skin, which is used in many DR. BAUMANN products with liposomes.

The Lipid Library - Sphingolipids
The Lipid Library, 2008.

Learn more on the importance, structure and biological functions of this important component of the human skin, used in many different highly specialized DR. BAUMANN products.

The Lipid Library - 
Straight Chain Saturated Fatty Acids

The Lipid Library, 2008. 

Learn more about the importance, structure and biological functions of this important component of human skin, which is used in many DR. BAUMANN products.

The Lipid Library - Eicosanoids - Structures and Key Enzymes
The Lipid Library, 2008.

Learn more about the importance, structure and biological functions of these important components of human skin, which are protected and enhanced by DR. BAUMANN products.

"The precursor fatty acids belong to both the omega-6 and omega-3 families. Of the precursor fatty acids, arachidonic acid has been by far the most studied, and it is special in many ways. It is an essential fatty acid in that it cannot be synthesized (...) and linoleic acid from the diet is required as a precursor (as discussed elsewhere). As a major component of phospholipids (...) it is important for the integrity of cellular membranes (...). (Their) biosynthesis (...)  involves the action of multiple enzymes".

The natural oils used in DR. BAUMANN products contain the necessary lipids for the essential biosynthesis by the enzymes (produced mainly in the liver) of human skin. Mineral oils and silicon oils do
not have these skin nourishing components.

The Lipid Library - 
Vitamin A

The Lipid Library, 2008.

Learn more about the importance, structure and biological functions of this important component of human skin, which is used in many DR. BAUMANN products. Included are also some comments on vitamin K and ubiquinone. "It has long been known that retinoids (vitamin A) are essential for vision (...). It is now realized that they also have essential roles in growth and development, reproduction and resistance to infection. They are particularly important for the function of epithelial cells in the digestive tract, lungs, nervous system, immune system, skin and bone at all stages of life. For example, they are required for the regeneration of damaged tissues. They appear to have some potential as chemo-preventive agents for cancer and for the treatment of skin diseases such as acne."

The Lipid Library - 
Vitamin E

The Lipid Library, 2008.

Learn more about the importance, structure and biological functions of this important component of human skin, which is used in many DR. BAUMANN products.

The Lipid Library - Waxes.
The Lipid Library, 2008.

Learn more about the importance, structure and biological functions of this important component of human skin, which is used in many DR. BAUMANN products.

The Nomenclature of Lipids
Journal of Lipid Research, 1967.

Understanding lipids and their function in the body and skin is not always easy. Scientists have also had to name all the different lipids that they discovered and still discover, including the processes of lipid synthesis by enzymes and other processes. This document gives an insight in the name-giving rules for organic lipids. 

The Nomenclature of Lipids
Journal of Lipid Research, 1976.

Understanding lipids and their function in the body and skin is not always easy. Scientists have also had to name all the different lipids that they discovered and still discover, including the processes of lipid synthesis by enzymes and other processes. This document gives an insight in the name-giving rules for organic lipids. Further developments since the original 1967 rules.

The Role of Emollients in the Care of Patients with Dry Skin
David Voegeli, University of Southampton, in the Nursing Standard, 2007.

Good and up-to-date overview of how the skin works. The role of epidermal lipid production in the cells and the role of enzymes is described. The treatment of dry skin is discussed with advice for medical workers.

"Enzymes within the epidermis act on phospholipids to produce a mixture of ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol. Crucial to the maintenance of the stratum corneum lipids, and therefore barrier function, is the essential fatty acid, linoleic acid". Many DR. BAUMANN products contain phospholipids in the form of liposomes and linoleic acid in the form of evening primrose oil.

The article also contains a table showing the 'chemical composition of natural moisturizing factor found in the epidermis'.

The Role of Epidermal Lipids
Dr. Feingold, University of California, in the Journal of lipid Research, 2008.

A very important, in-depth overview of the functioning of human skin. Some highlights: On the importance of a good skin pH (+/- 5.5): "Many cutaneous inflammatory disorders also are associated with increases in stratum corneum pH, which could adversely affect enzyme activity in the stratum corneum resulting in a decrease in permeability barrier function and stratum corneum integrity and cohesion". On the importance of the right treatment of the skin with non-occlusive ingredients in order  to prevent damage: "The first step in this repair response is the rapid secretion (within minutes) of the contents of the lamellar bodies from the outer stratum granulosum cells, resulting in a marked decrease in the number of lamellar bodies in stratum granulosum cells (50-80% of preexisting lamellar bodies are secreted). Newly formed lamellar bodies begin to reappear in the stratum granulosum cells and accelerated secretion continues until permeability barrier function returns towards normal. If one artificially restores permeability barrier function to normal by application of an impermeable membrane, one can inhibit the further secretion of lamellar bodies".

In concrete terms, this means that the self-restoring capability of human skin is inhibited by occlusive ointments with mineral oils like petrolatum. The importance of cholesterol, fatty acids, phospholipids, ceramides and triglycerides (from the sebaceous glands) is described as being crucial for a healthy and well hydrated skin barrier. The text also describes how the damage caused by occlusive treatment can be reversed by supplementation of cholesterol, fatty acids, phospholipids, ceramides and triglycerides, which repair the skin. This is exactly what DR. BAUMANN creams do.

The importance of supplementation of fatty acids (as parts of some natural vegetable oils) instead of mineral oils in a cream becomes is underlined: "Fatty acids (...) will serve as precursors for both phospholipids and ceramides". Natural oils containing substances such as fatty acids and cholesterol are used as nutrition for the skin. The skin's enzymes will use them as source for other important building blocks of the stratum corneum.

Stress can be another cause of skin damage and imbalances: "Stress in both mice and humans results in impaired permeability barrier homeostasis. Studies have further shown that in psychologically stressed animals epidermal lipid synthesis is decreased leading to decreased lamellar body formation. Additionally, the abnormalities in permeability barrier homeostasis in psychologically stressed animals could be improved by treatment with topical lipids".

On the importance of the right balance of ALL necessary lipids in a cream with natural skin endemic lipids:" Are the relative quantities of the key lipids important? KF: It is clear that cholesterol, ceramides, and fatty acids are required for the formation of lamellar bodies in keratinocytes. When one topically applies a lipid mixture containing equimolar concentrations of all three essential lipids, permeability barrier recovery following acute disruption is normal. In contrast, topical application of any one or two of the three key lipids to acutely perturbed skin actually results in a delay in permeability barrier repair associated with abnormal appearing lamellar bodies.(...) Thus, in order to synthesize lamellar bodies the key lipids must be present in appropriate distributions and an excess or deficiency of a particular lipid can disturb lamellar body formation." 

This means that a cream must be complete and well balanced, which is the task of the DR. BAUMANN LAB. The beautician has to work together with
the customer in order to obtain the best possible results. If a cream does not lead to the desired improvement or even has some adverse effects, this does not mean that the product is not well made. It means that the cream did not have the right balance of lipids necessary for that particular customer. Another cream has to be tried to obtain a better balance. The right result = the right balance of lipids. The right balance of lipids = the lipids produced by the skin + the lipids of the cream. Again: "Can one use topical lipids (in creams, TM)  to improve permeability barrier homeostasis in damaged or diseased skin? Yes. Treatment with topical lipids can be divided into two approaches. First, one can use non-physiological lipids such as petrolatum (i.e. Vaseline), lanolin, beeswax, etc. These lipids do not enter the lamellar body secretory pathway but rather fill the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum with hydrophobic non-lamellar lipid that inhibits the movement of water and electrolytes. Treatment with these nonphysiological lipids can very rapidly, but only partially restore permeability barrier function towards normal. A disadvantage of non-physiological lipids is that they also can inhibit the normal permeability barrier repair mechanisms and thus the underlying abnormality is not corrected. The second approach is to use lipids or precursors of the lipids that are normally present in lamellar bodies. Studies have shown that appropriate molar mixes of lipids that contain cholesterol, ceramides, and fatty acids can improve permeability barrier homeostasis. In contrast to non-physiologic lipids, these lipids are transported across the stratum corneum into the stratum granulosum cells where they mix with the endogenous pool of lipids. Hence it is important that the appropriate mixture of lipid be used, because as noted above if incomplete or misbalanced mixtures of lipids are used, lamellar body contents are altered and permeability barrier homeostasis can be negatively impacted". 

It may be clear that DR. BAUMANN radically goes for the best solution, which is to work with physiological lipids. If customers don't need supplementation of extra lipids, it is better to just cleanse and if necessary use a lipid-poor cream or lotion with vitamins and other essential NMF-components that restores the hydrolipid layer on top of the skin and that was removed by the cleansers. Never will occlusive oils like mineral oils be used in DR. BAUMANN creams.

The Truth About Over-the-Counter Topical Anti Aging products
Aesthetic Surgery Journal, 2007.

"Many products advertise dramatic results, but there have been relatively little scientific data to support these claims. We reviewed the literature on ingredients commonly found in anti-aging creams. We conclude that although many different compounds are marketed as anti-aging products, studies proving their efficacy are limited (...)."

Coenzyme Q10 has been proven to have no effect as an anti-aging compound in skin care. Mineral oil (petrolatum) is not able to increase skin hydration or to repair damaged or dry skin. Liposomes and other skin endemic lipids can.

"Petrolatum—the most commonly used occlusive substance—is able to decrease water loss from the skin by about 50% but does not produce any increase in hydration. In the epidermis of aged individuals, there is about a 30% decrease in stratum corneum lipid content and significantly delayed barrier recovery. Therefore many of the investigations of moisturizers have involved topical application and replacement of stratum corneum lipids. In a mouse model, all three lipid components (fatty acids, cholesterol, and ceramid) were necessary for normal barrier repair."

The Ubiquitous Triclosan: A common antibacterial agent exposed
National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides, 2004.

Explains why the use of preservatives like triclosan can cause contact allergy and damage the skin by killing the bacteria on and in the skin that are responsible for lipid synthesis and thus good skin health. Preservatives are not intelligent: they kill ALL bacteria: those that can be a treat to health, but also those that keep the body and skin healthy. Result: preservatives cause skin aging, directly by killing necessary skin bacteria and indirectly when they cause an allergy.

The World is Going Organic
Industry report, 2008.

For many years there has been a growing awareness that natural/organic products are good for our environment and our direct health. Since the establishment of DR. BAUMANN this has also been our point of view. Since 1989/1990 DR. BAUMANN has selected ingredients that are not only just natural/organic, but also gentle to environment, animals, and of course humans. However, DR. BAUMANN is not only natural/organic, but also 'bionome', a huge step forward. Bionome means that the ingredients must have a proven benefit and be highly similar or identical with human skin, in order to have the strongest health benefit and the strongest anti-aging efficiency.

Therapeutic Properties of Tea Tree Oils
New Zealand Pharmacy, 1998.

Tea tree oil has many well-described therapeutic properties in skin care. It has a strong diminishing effect on fungi and bacteria. As such it is used by DR. BAUMANN in a number of specialized products to counter the undesired effects of bacteria in the development of acne and body odor. Our advice is that it should only be used in such cases, and only as long as necessary, as tea tree has also some fragrance-like properties which unfortunately have been reported to cause allergies in some cases. 

Our advice is like the advice of a physician when it comes to  antibiotics: don't hesitate to use antibiotics when you need them, but only as long as necessary.

True Test Balsam of Peru.
T.R.U.E., 2008.

Standardized test for allergens used by dermatologists.
The existence of a test for this substance indicates that is an important and strong allergen that should be avoided as much as possible.

True Test Colophon
T.R.U.E., 2008.

Standardized test for allergens used by dermatologists.
The existence of a test for this substance indicates that is an important and strong allergen that should be avoided as much as possible.

True Test Diazolidinyl Urea
T.R.U.E., 2008.

Standardized test for allergens used by dermatologists.
The existence of a test for this substance indicates that is an important and strong allergen that should be avoided as much as possible.

True Test Formaldehyde.
T.R.U.E., 2008.

Standardized test for allergens used by dermatologists.
The existence of a test for this substance indicates that is an important and strong allergen that should be avoided as much as possible.

True Test Fragrance Mix.
T.R.U.E., 2008.

Standardized test for allergens used by dermatologists.
The existence of a test for this substance indicates that is an important and strong allergen that should be avoided as much as possible.

True Test Imidazolidinyl Urea
T.R.U.E., 2008.

Standardized test for allergens used by dermatologists.
The existence of a test for this substance indicates that is an important and strong allergen that should be avoided as much as possible.

True Test Isothiazolinone.
T.R.U.E., 2008.

Standardized test for allergens used by dermatologists.
The existence of a test for this substance indicates that is an important and strong allergen that should be avoided as much as possible.

True Test Lanolin
T.R.U.E., 2008.

Standardized test for allergens used by dermatologists.
The existence of a test for this substance indicates that itis an important and strong allergen that should be avoided as much as possible.

True Test Paraben Mix.
T.R.U.E., 2008.

Standardized test for allergens used by dermatologists.
The existence of a test for this substance indicates that is an important and strong allergen that should be avoided as much as possible.

True Test Quaternium-15.
T.R.U.E., 2008.

Standardized test for allergens used by dermatologists.
The existence of a test for this substance indicates that it is an important and strong allergen that should be avoided as much as possible.

Understanding Parabens.
Innovative body science, 2006.

Information sheet of a cosmetic company that correctly states that there is not any proof of a relationship between parabens and cancer. Nevertheless, they decide:

"Although Parabens. are safe, we understand that there is a lot of misinformation in the market and thus a demand for paraben free products. Because we support our clients, Innovative will be offering all our products in a paraben free version beginning January 2007"

More and more companies are doing or do the same. Parabens
cannot be hidden, so adaptations are made under pressure of losing customers. However, if these adaptations are only based on marketing and sales concerns (paraben free!), they are made in the interest of the producer, and not automatically in the interest of the consumer. Parabens are replaced  by other preservatives, which have similar disadvantages (strongly allergenic). The consumer assumes the product is safe, but receives another allergenic substance instead. To avoid such mistakes, DR. BAUMANN products are all based on medical and scientific knowledge, and not on marketing needs.

Use of Aromatherapy Products and Increased Risk of Hand Dermatitis in Massage Therapists.
Department of Dermatology University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia; and Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, in Arch. Dermatol., 2004.

"Many massage therapists may be exposed to multiple factors known to increase the risk of developing hand dermatitis, such as wet work, frequent hand washing, fragrance, dyes, detergents, latex, and other irritants and allergens found in massage oils, creams, and lotions." 

"Aromatherapy, the therapeutic use of essential oils, has also gained increased popularity (...). Essential oils are aromatic substances extracted from flowers, plants, and wood resins by a variety of methods, such as distillation or maceration. Allergic contact dermatitis to aromatherapy products has been demonstrated in several case reports and small case series. The spectrum of skin reactions includes allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, contact urticaria, and phototoxic reactions."

Of course, the same danger exists for beauticians and their customers, because most products used and sold in beauty salons contain the same substances that cause these problems for 23% of massage therapists: "Allergic contact dermatitis from essential oils has been documented in several occupational subgroups, including bar workers, citrus fruit pickers, hairdressers, beauticians, aromatherapists, and massage therapists. The most commonly cited specific oils include tea-tree oil (
melaleuca alternifolia), lavender, jasmine, rosewood, lemon oils, orange oils (including oil of bergamot), citronella, cassia oil, ylang-ylang oil, and clove oil."

The study concludes: "To lower this high prevalence of hand dermatitis in massage therapists, it may be useful to conduct an educational campaign regarding the potential hazards of aromatherapy products".

Natural/organic essential oils can have some beneficial effects as well, but should preferabl
y not be used on a daily basis as they have a rather strong allergizing potential as well. They should not be advised for a long lasting daily skin care regime. Essential oils are a typical example of how natural substances, when not selected for their health properties, can damage the health of human skin.

Many beauticians
have been able to work again without experiencing problems on their hands and skin only because they changed to the bionome products of DR. BAUMANN.

Use of Topical Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C).
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surgery, 1999.

"A 3-month daily regimen of topical ascorbic acid (vitamin C) provided objective and subjective improvement in photodamaged facial skin."

"Clinical assessment demonstrated significant improvement with active treatment greater than control for fine wrinkling, tactile roughness, coarse rhytids, skin laxity/tone, sallowness/ yellowing, and overall features."

UV - Generated Free Radicals
SÖFW-Journal, 2007.

"Free radicals are the first and common cause of skin aging, in particular photoaging, and the reduction of the free radical injury in the epidermis is the most important strategy for a modern skin and also sun care product."

"There are four primary ways to reduce free radical damage generated from UV light: 
• avoid excess exposure to sunlight
• wear protective clothing
• antioxidant-containing sun block creams and lotions
• ingest antioxidant supplements."

"The predominant antioxidants in skin are vitamin C and E, as they neutralize reactive oxygen species before these can produce oxidative stress in respectively fluids and lipid phase. Although the amount of vitamins –originating from nutrition- delivered to skin is limited, it appears to be possible to achieve a higher level of photoprotection by using topical vitamins".

Vesicles as a Tool for Transdermal and Dermal Delivery
Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, in Drug Discovery Today: Technologies, 2005.

This study repeats other studies that already showed the necessity of liposomes for the transportation of active ingredients into the skin (stratum corneum), and describes two theories of how this actually works.

Vitamin C on Human Skin.
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 2006.

The topical application of vitamin C  formulations resulted in increased production of collagen types I and III and cytokeratin. This result can only be obtained when this vitamin is transported into the skin. DR. BAUMANN uses multilamellar liposomes to transport vitamin C into the skin.

Vitamins in Cosmetics.
Hofmann-La Roche, 2002.

Short abstract and very readable overview of the main functions on the skin of D-panthenol, biotin, and vitamins E, C and A. All these ingredients are widely used in DR. BAUMANN cosmetics.



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